lexicon, week 9

A page from Lexicon Universale
A page from Lexicon Universale (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

For the last round of lexicon items this term, focus on these:





Think about them both in terms of design/graphics and marketing, especially as these words resonate with and around media tools, technologies, channels, etc.

Post your thoughts as comments below, and the deadline for this final run of the exercise is Monday (12/2)…Have a great (but short) holiday break!


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19 thoughts on “lexicon, week 9”

  1. TOPOGRAPHY: is how things are arranged in a given space, usually referring to at least partially natural objects, although artificial ones play a role too. It’s what you know about a real or imaginary place via digital or printed representation before experiencing it. It’s often not a map for the purpose of finding directions, but it’s generally a type of guide or artistic expression. Its accuracy depends on the quality of many technological measuring tools.

    REPRESENTATION: lies in the imagination of the artist. It’s about portraying something or someone in a certain nature. It is all about careful selection and elimination with the target population in mind. It’s about what connotations a viewer might have when interacting with given material and what actions those connotations might influence in somebody.

    PATH: the pen tool creates a path to start from, and you might add text or other shapes to that starting point. Your eye also takes a path around a page design, and it is best that it is first drawn to one area, and led around the page without too much pushing and pulling. There is also a psychological path the consumer takes when seeing a design ad for the first time, starting with questions and ending with an answer.

    SCALE: literally, you can scale or resize an object in all adobe suite programs. You can also add scales, or at least a resemblance of real life measurements into a design to help inform the viewer about what they are seeing and how it might make its transformation into printed materials. In a broader sense, there is also the scale of the audience; how far will those printed materials make it out into the world? How targeted is the target audience?

  2. Topography: I am assuming that this is a typo and we are supposed to write about typography, since this isn’t a map-making class, but I could be wrong in which case I’d say that this refers to the way items are laid out and arranged on a page. If it is supposed to be typography, Robin Williams says that, “type is the basic building block of any printed page.” Typography refers to what font you use and how you arrange it. Typography can have a big impact on a page of design. Robin Williams talks about ways you can use type and the dos and don’ts of combining certain fonts. Williams advocates for using contrasting typefaces which are very clearly distinct from each other. Ways in which you can manipulate type are with size, boldness, leading, and kerning.

    Representation: Marketing is all about how you represent your organization to your target audience. Good design can enhance marketing materials, thereby creating a more attractive and accurate representation of your organization. A poster which makes use of the design principles of contrast, repetition, alignment, and proximity is more likely to catch someone’s attention than a boring poster. It is important, therefore, that you know what you are doing when you create marketing materials that represent your organization.

    Path: Something I learned, and promptly forgot how to do in Illustrator was to write text on a path. Using text on a path is a good way to combine type and images and can be very useful in creating a logo. Placing text at an unusual angle by placing it on a path can create a greater level of visual interest and draw attention to that text.

    Scale: Scale has been very important as we have worked on our logos because it is important to maintain the integrity of your logo across all of your collateral. If you don’t lock in the scale of images, they can become distorted, which is no good. Scaling up or down images can create different effects, depending on your intentions. For example, scaling up an image and then using it at different opacity levels can be a good way to add interest to your organization’s letterhead.

  3. Topography is an aspect of mapping. It is a detailed description of a certain area as it pertains to its terrain. Sometimes an indication of the elevation is referenced by color, in fact most times it is. Topography has a long-standing history being utilized by maps even today; we have all seen a GPS and know what the terrain looks like because of this. Topography is an art form; to me, it full of natural complexities and beauty. The terrain of an area defines it in a way that may not be perceivable to the human eye, and it represents the space in a more articulate way than that of images or descriptions alone.

    A representation basically means a replica of something; it stands to be interpreted as the thing being represented. Another way to think of it is: a picture of an object is a representation of that object. Transmedialy speaking, a representation is utilized in most all forms of media. Representation is also the way you present yourself to others. When we think of business cards or branding, representation becomes very important. It is a form of interfacing with the pubic, and a way to make an impression.

    One of my pet peeves, if you will, is when the metaphor of life is compared to that of a path. Or journey. Just saying, I don’t know why. A path is what is traveled to reach a destination. It is a softer word than road or highway, so it often used for descriptive purposes, but may also be used in its literal definition. A path can be used as a timeline to describe the route that was taken to reach that certain destination. The path a company has taken to reach the market; the path an employee has taken to reach a higher position. Paths are found anywhere there is nature. A path may also describe the way the eye travels through a space or page, examining focal points and/or negative space.

    Thinking of the word scale makes me think of a lot of things. Fish, weight, size, perspective, climbing. The most prominent meaning for me is height and size. In drawing illustrations, we use scale to indicate many things, namely the relationship of objects on a page; the scale of the building compared to that of a person or car, and we can manipulate scale to change the perspective of a piece and what it means. Scale is used when talking about text and graphics as it has a lot to with layout and branding guidelines. Scaling a logo for a proper representation or focal point is central for different typed of collateral.

  4. So much of what we have learned this term is mapping in some way. Mapping our marketing in our case studies, mapping a design for our graphic standards and even mapping each other in our critique last week. All four of these words convince together for me around he idea of mapping or making a plan to move towards something and design.

    Topography: Topography traditionally refers to the to circle representation of levels of height. In terms of adobe creative suite I feel like topography refers to the layers in the program and the hierarchy of “height” or which layer is brought the forefront and which layer is brought to the back. In terms of Marketing topography to me can coincide with words like demographic and cultural cluster. The term topography in marketing can refer to the makeup of your community.

    Representation: Whatever we embed in into our design is representations of what our organization or project is. The typeface, colors, spacing all of our design choices need to be made with representation ideas in the background.

    Path: This term is strictly tool based for me due to how much we have been working with paths in Adobe. so Path is the anchors and points around a shape or line, it also bring it perspective terms like stroke of path, tracing and depth.

    Scale: Scale refers to an image you are brining in to Adobe, scaling it up or scaling it down. It also refers to the size and scale you choose your design elements to be. It is important when scaling to take into account the space of your design and where tension points lie or where there is too much open space and makes the scale images seem like their floating.

  5. Topography refers to mapping, so in marketing, it means the overall space and layout of a design and the colors and words that are used. Like many other aspects of design, topography can be an aid or a detriment to the message, depending on how everything is laid out. Mapping is also relevant to the creation of a marketing piece; in order to successfully make something, you have to know your way around the software. Understanding the different tools you have can help make the design process run more smoothly.

    Representation is how an organization portrays itself to the public. Good representation depends on good marketing and notoriety within a community and on which audience the organization is trying to impress.

    Path is a tool in Adobe which, when using the pen tool, creates a line of sorts around a shape. Path can also refer to the trail your eye takes when looking at a marketing piece. Without good visual cues, it is difficult to grab people’s attention.

    Scale is how large objects are compared to each other. Objects can be moved and scaled to size in order to make the overall visuals of the piece appealing. Several factors go into scale, among them are space and size.

  6. topography – It’s hard for me to think about topography without thinking about maps. I’ve spent a lot of time on backpacking trips studying topographic maps and have taught this to youth as part of various teaching jobs. I think about this as the surfaces, the ups and downs, and the angle of inclines. There’s a lot of potential for metaphorical crossover with topography. What is the topography of an intellectual subject? What has been the topography of my day? What is the topography in marketing a season of theater? Topography to me also implies travel, a subject moving through space toward a goal.

    representation – It’s re-presentation. It implies distance. A presentation of a thing hides certain qualities. In a re-presentation, the act of presentation is more explicit and more transparent. I think representations can be useful as educational tools, as prompts for discussion, and building scenarios. What is the difference between a representation and a model? Are these the same? Relative to our work in the class, there is a bit of a rabbit hole here because we keep re-presenting things to capture new audiences. This can pull us away from the “thing” itself, presenting “itself” rather than being re-presented by another.

    path – Calling lines in Illustrator paths is interesting for me. In my mind, paths run through forests and not across computer screens. Paths have direction and intention. They are worn into the landscape after repeated use. Paths in Illustrator feel ephemeral and experimental. You create a path and delete them and create another one. This is very hard to do with the path in the real world. In the forest you block it off with logs and rocks and sprinkle moss and leaves to disguise its appearance and allow the vegetation to re-grow. This is not the world of graphic design, so I think “paths” is a bit of a misnomer in Illustrator. Path, to me, always implies a solid choice of direction.

    scale – This is one of my favorite words. A revealing book for me is Toward a Unified Ecology, which first exposed me to the impact of scale on one’s thinking. The book looks at ecological processes at several different scales and showcases how our scale of perception limits our understanding and perhaps puts a complete understanding out of human grasp. Scaling is a tool for perception. Looking at problems and solutions at different scales and being clear about how you are scaling the problems you hare trying to solve are two useful maxims for me.

  7. Topography: This term harkens back to the SWOC analysis I completed for my CoSM case study. I also think about maps and, generally, spatial recognition via symbols and signs. I think about the topography of my Graphic Standards and how what I see on the screen will, inevitably, be different than what I present on the printed page. This train of thought makes me consider the need for developing hardware, notably screens, which translate the pre-printed image into a more realistic post-print image, and how this technology would be useful. The new Kindle advertises itself as a “real page” experience for reading; can this same technology not be translated into a large format for designers and digital artists?

    Representation: In marketing, representation is a very important concept. I keep trying to reconcile mass media marketing techniques (which, arguably, are very effective) with more subtle and “classy” arts marketing techniques. There needs to be a middle ground. I also consider unpacking these concepts with regards to politically charged topics (environmentalism, gay marriage, etc): I have always felt that when political inquiry become “main-stream cool” things will take a turn for the better. However, I am not entirely sure that is true, considering the current trend for large corporations to sell themselves using a “feel-good” “we are conscious” approach that has many fooled.

    Path: I can’t help but think of rastor and vector paths, but I have been spending much time with the Adobe suite. There are also paths in life: choice we make, and, paths in our academic careers.

    Scale: This term triggers Adobe suit images in my mind: changing the scale of an image for collateral, or for the Graphic Standards assignment.

  8. Topography: the mapping, or spacial relationships of elements and objects. Topography can be used to describe several things from the topography of land, like on a map, to the topography of a space with dancers as the subject moving inside of it. Topography as it relates to design would indicate the ups and downs and positive and negative space of elements on a page or a screen. Typography can create topography with individual shapes of letters and their relationship to each other. The position that design elements are placed together in an indicated space can also create topography.

    Representation: is the substitute of the real thing. A representation is in place of the original object. Perhaps it is a scaled model representing the original design that is much larger, like our collateral in our graphic standards, or it is a person representing another due to their lack of attendance at an event. Representation is also the way we portray ourselves to others. This is a very important concept for marketing an organization, and one must always be aware of how the decisions they are making represent the company as a whole.

    Path: Now when I think of that word I think of “type on a path” from Adobe Illustrator. A path leads from one point to another. Paths can be taken consciously or unconsciously. If you are taking a path in a forrest, it would be a conscious choice. But if you are reading from left to right, or allowing your eyes to follow from one design element to another, you are creating an unconscious path of looking.

    Scale: indicates sizing an object to an appropriate dimension. Scales show measurements. In the media context, you might be scaling an image to input it into a design, or creating a scale for collateral for graphic standards.

  9. topography – in a sense, is the composition of a work of art or an audience. A topographic study takes into consideration the comparative relations among elements within a region. I enjoy how the lines on a topography map visually display waves of influence, each line conforming to relative distance of the lines on either side of it.

    representation – the depiction of an idea on behalf of someone or something else. In class, we have discussed the value of a logo and how it should embody the essence of an organization so that everyone will know what that organization stands for; this is representation through visual communication. The media portrays individual people, groups, ideas, and topics from a particular point of view, and therefore, they evoke their own representation (or display) of the subject at hand.

    path – the line from one anchor point to another in Adobe Illustrator. The avenue one may choose to go down in reference to aesthetic choices, marketing plans, or presentation strategies. The literal translation refers to a line of sorts and the direction of that course.

    scale – the size of an object or image in relation to others or its overall confines. To achieve realistic proportions in a work of art, one must scale an object so that it maintains a balanced ratio in visual weight with regards to the other objects in the piece. Think not only of a scale as a tool for measuring physical weight, but rather as a means of representing the range of extremities within a situation – on one end of a market scale you may have listed the lowest price at which you can afford to sell your product, while on the other end you list the highest price you can charge for your product without losing customers.

  10. topography
    The term topography can be applied to the physical appearance of a space or place–especially denoted by particular features, which can be observed and analyzed separately, or as parts constituting a whole. I would tend to imagine topography in design as applying to the overall look of something, expressed in the layout of multiple different features. In my final project, the topography of my e-publication is expressed through my use of color, repeating elements, and the particular elements I chose to pull the eye in one direction over another.

    Representation is a key consideration in marketing. How are programming or services being portrayed? Are programs being marketed, and observed by potential patrons, as accessible? Welcoming? Exclusive? “Cool”? How these programs are represented is what matters. No matter what the actual content of the program/performance/artistic product actually is, for a new patron with no prior experience with an organization or the particular offering, how that experience is represented is all they have to base their purchasing upon.

    In Illustrator, paths are lines created by points that the user chooses in order to create a selection. If needed, the path can be turned into a line. The advantage is that the selection can be scaled without limit and saved in the document for later use.

    This term can have many possible interpretations. In design, scaling has to do with changing the size or shape of an item while keeping the original proportions. You can transform the selection, like any object. Scale can also refer to scope of communication, for example in arts marketing. Social media tools have massively changed the scale on which arts organizations can reach out to current and prospective patrons. This is true, of course, in general–technology has increased our communication capabilities by offering us an overwhelming number of channels for instantaneous connection with one another. By the way, this video is amazing: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GAx845QaOck
    It’s a video of a performance by slam poet Marshall Soulful Jones called “Touchscreen.”

  11. These are four technical terms that I came across for the first time this year; I have learnt that they are what describe a design. Topography or a map is physical description of a certain layout represented by shapes and colors guided by paths and retained in scales. But if we would apply them to marketing strategies, topography would be a map or simply a marketing plan. A plan that comes with strategies made up of paths, representation and in style. I feel that a good map would come with a clear intention and purpose; it helps us find what we need in a clear “path.” This map should also represent itself to different groups of targets audiences. How the map is presented to our audiences and their responses effects how they would use the map and find what they want or desire. In this map we will need to create an easy and sensible way of path, meaning starting from the moment our audience engages with our “map,” they are locked in and lead through to the moment they pay at check-out. Also, we should not shy away from the physical aspect of this “path” dealing with such things as getting to the event itself, whether there would be accessible parking or elevator for wheelchairs etc. If we would to describe this “map” as a marketing campaign, how much of the budget spent on it would determine the scale and ways of delivering our message to our audiences. However having a large budget for a marketing campaign does not mean it will be successful unless other parts of the campaign works and complements one another. The scale of the map should not derive away the purpose and intention of the map as it is comprised of clarity, efficiency and the essence of the organization.

  12. Topography
    The arrangement of physical features in a region. In design topography represents the surface features of a place or a region on a map. Generally the arrangement and the relation of the components are called topography.

    The way that something is designed and presented. Representation is one of the key factors in marketing a good. The whole process of selling a good is directly related to the way it is represented in the market.


    A way which is made for a particular purpose. In computer science, Path shows the place of a file.


    Ratio difference between size of a representation or model of an object and the actual object.

  13. Topography is the stylistic form of lettering, in which the entire alphabet as well as the numbers and symbols are connected through a similar design.

    Representation is a way of conveying an idea through a visual form or design. Typically, a representation is simple and easily understood for an audience.

    Path is the guiding course of direction that leads toward an end goal. Path is also a term within Adobe Illustrator. It’s the outline of an object or text that contains anchor points to adjust the shape of the object.

    Scale is the scope of a subject as well as the ability to change the size of an object in design software.

  14. Topography— the sum of parts, the features of an environment. In marketing terms this can refer to actual topography and how it effects consumer buying and travelling habits (is there a mountain between you and some of your audience for instance). It can also refer to the metaphorical “emotional” topography or landscape needing to be navigated by a marketer. In design terms, it’s overall appearance and composition of the page elements…although I think people sometimes say topography when the mean typography when discussing design…
    representation— In marketing this is the “image” being conveyed by an organization. In design, it’s the use of metaphor and images to evoke a specific response or to convey a specific idea.
    path— In the design software this is a line that can be typed on or used as an outline with points along it that can be manipulated. Good marketing can help lead a consumer down the thought patterns and directions you are leading them to. This could be considered a path.
    scale— The size of something, both physically in a design and metaphorically in terms of impact: “The scale of the project overwhelmed them.”

  15. Topography: I think of maps and guides when I see this word, as it most often relates to the physical and man-made features that encompass a designated area. I usually think of these types of things in three-dimensional values, such as mountains, forests, bodies of water, etc.

    Representation: This word stands in for another. It could assume a symbolic, perceptive, physical, social, or temporal nature, as in the representation of time passing. When I think of something representing something else, I often liken the two words with similar traits or values. Representation is also subjective in that means different things to different people, the viewer choosing to draw his/her conclusions about the state of the objects being considered.

    Path: I will forever think of typing on a path, as used in Adobe software! The path is where everything happens, in Adobe at least. I find my path consistently morphing, twisting, leading me from one adventure to another. My path is full of memories, people, places, sights, smells, sounds that come by to say hello at the unlikeliest of times, just when I need them most. But I’ve lived through those early days and they can’t take them away from me (as Sir Paul so eloquently once said).

    Scale: Another word rooted in design after this class. I think I spent just as much time scaling my collateral pieces and logos as I did actually creating them. What a slippery slope to minutely adjust and tweak every little variable just to your liking for that one moment…..on another side, scale also has meaning in balance and stability for your life. Being able to take stock of my existence and collective experiences and objectively evaluate them from time to time is important for my head space and well being.

  16. topography:
    The progress of topography has deep connection with human’s understanding of the earth’ shape, map cartographic, and mapping instruments.

    Representation is to use imagines or visual from to bring out an idea. In marketing, is the efficient way to catch costumers attention. For example, In my field guide project, I founded that there were more and more film festivals started to utilize movie trailer to attracted audience’s attention.

    A path in illustrator is a line we made when we drew. In the beginning and the end we created an anchor point. We also can change the shape of a path by dragging its anchor points. In this way, a path helps us alter the shape easily, because it’s show the route of what we drew.

    Scale is regarding the size or proportion of the object we created in design softwares. It was a big challenge for me, when decided the scale of elements in my graphic standard. Trying to find the best arrangement of logo, imagines, and text took most of the time to completed my work.

  17. Topography: Refers to the settings of elements within a space. Although regularly used to talk about maps it makes sense to use it in design since so much of the clarity of a message has to do with the way the idea is portrayed.

    Representation: Means to use a different element or idea to portray something. It could either be imagery, colors, sounds or words. When it comes to design and marketing this is really useful because if you manage to deliver a message through representation, you’re also simplifying the message.

    Path: In design, path refers to a line that we are able to edit, move and arrange to our desire in order to produced the necessary shape.

    Scale: Is the ability of an element to preserve the same size proportions even when it’s enlarged.

  18. TYPOGRAPHY is the study of type! It is the “art and technique of arranging of type in order to make language visible,” according to Wikipedia. I will also add that is the act of making language BEAUTIFUL! The selection of a typeface, weight, kerning, leading, hierarchy, and more, work together to compose effective delivery of information. Typography began with ancient cylinder seals and presses, but was revolutionized the invention of movable type, attributed to Johannes Gutenberg in the 1600s, and again with the proliferation of digital fonts in the 20th century through today. There are thousands, maybe millions, of typefaces in existence, so designers must use discretion when choosing a typeface. It must align with and reflect the message and mode of delivery. For example, it might not be wise to use a complicated script face on a billboard, where passersby only have a few seconds to interpret the message. I could talk for hours about typography, anyone interested? :)

    REPRESENTATION is the depiction of someone or something in visual or verbal form. For example, Money represents water lilies through globs of paint on a canvas, and Picasso represented his models in geometric, disjointed forms. Representation can also be they way a person or organization is portrayed to the public, or to a specific audience. Marketing is a means of representing a company or organization, and this representation should be positive, accurate, and align with the mission of the organization.

    A PATH in Adobe software refers to line segments with anchor points that are connected to other paths or anchor points. These paths can be manipulated with the direct selection tool.

    SCALE refers to the sizing of an image or object. In graphic design, images can be reduced or enlarged, in proportion, from the original. Pixel images, should not be scaled larger than their original size, because information and quality is lost. With vector images, however, they can be scaled infinitely large or small. The designer must consider scaling when creating logos for the greatest flexibility in application. Certain typefaces are more favorable at different scales. Scale can also refer to the dimensions of an overall piece. Are you designing for a flyer or a billboard? The scale of your overall design will directly affect design choices.

  19. Topography – I think of a topographical map, which shows the natural arrangement of an area including elevation of areas. Topography refers to mapping and arranging.

    Representation – to present something in it’s non-original form. To present again in a different way than it was originally presented. Transforming something so that it has a new meaning or shape. Fore example to scale something is a way to represent something in a smaller or larger form.

    Path – A direction or track laid down to follow. A path can be straight, zig zig, curvy, etc.

    Scale – to size something while maintaining proportions. You can scale something to be larger or smaller but the proportions stay the same. Use your shift key!

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