Lexicon, week 8

Language of the Birds San Francisco
Language of the Birds San Francisco (Photo credit: davidyuweb)

The terms you should focus on this week are:






The rest of the list we generated looks like this:
focal point

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18 thoughts on “Lexicon, week 8”

  1. Message: The central underlying theme within an advertisement. It may be subtle, it may be direct. It may suggest (directly or indirectly) a “better practice” or “ideal way to live.” It may cause the consumer to reevaluate values or feelings about social experiences.

    Advocate: (revenue) is the sales influenced by word-of-mouth advertising. Generally speaking, an advocate is a partner, a projector, someone who is on your side. The problem is, often times advocates must take on more than one role and conflicts of interests can occur.

    Differentiation: In marketing, this is how a company demonstrates that it has characteristics make it better than or competitive to other companies. These characteristics must resonate throughout marketing agendas and must distinguish the company repetitively so that consumers don’t forget. These characteristics are generally valuable to the consumer in some way or beneficial to a group of people overall.

    Impact: The effect a product has on a consumer. It it (hopefully) measurable or at least trackable so that a company can adjust marketing campaigns strategically. It relies on the effective communication of the brand and the gained interest of the consumer.

  2. Message: Marketing is all about successfully conveying a message to your target audience. In the case of arts marketing, the message being conveyed is that the consumer should attend your event. There are a number of factors which contribute to whether your message is successfully received or not. It is important that you make the consumer feel that the value associated with participating in your event outweighs the risks associated with participating. The more specific you are in identifying who the individual you are trying to reach is, the more likely it is that that individual will be receptive to your message.

    Advocate: In approaching corporations to ask for sponsorships, it is always beneficial to have an advocate for your organization positioned somewhere within the corporation. The best way to discover who your organization’s potential advocates are is to ask volunteers, staff, and board members to list acquaintances and contacts of theirs who might be in a position to help the organization. Having an advocate increases the chance that a corporation will respond positively to your request for sponsorship.

    Differentiation: It is important when designing marketing campaigns to differentiate between different segments of the population according to factors such as age, gender, income level, occupation, and interests. Through differentiating between different segments of the population, you can tailor your message more specifically to the groups you are trying to reach, thereby increasing your likelihood of success. In terms of design, differentiation ties into the concept of contrast which can be used to make certain elements of a design pop.

    Impact: As arts administrators we want our work, whether it is in the realm of fundraising, marketing, design, or programming, to have the greatest possible impact. A marketing campaign has the greatest impact when the consumer can relate to the message being conveyed. A fundraising campaign has greatest impact when prospective donors become invested in the work of the organization. According to Robin Williams, design has the greatest impact when you follow the principles of contrast, repetition, alignment, and proximity, and when you make strong choices regarding typography and use of images.

  3. Message: Maintaining a clear and concise message in your brand and company identity are important across the radar of consumers, both in visual design and in the programming around which that design shines through. From a marketing perspective, identifying and conveying your message will depend on the application of its use, should be bold (as Robin W says) and take risks, but should also draw the reader in for maximum stickiness. Being smart about how you convey your organization’s message through web and print media, along with personal, day to day communication, is a great step in the right direction, from which the design and implementation of that message can be packaged and sold.

    Advocate: We need all the advocates we can get! Whether they be volunteers, donors, public leaders, teachers, etc., we rely on these connectors of society to spread our message outside of our target audience. We also need to be advocates ourselves, seeking out new revenue streams, programming opportunities, constituents, and supporters, using our mission and our passion to accomplish this.

    Differentiation: When selling a product, differentiation helps to find the angle with which you market that product to a specific consumer based on age, gender, geography, lifestyle, etc. If market segmentation defines the WHO for your product then differentiation is the HOW. Framing a product or service in a certain way that will draw a particular type of consumer based on the values of that consumer is differentiation. This could also be used to distinguish how your product differs from competitors (and hopefully why it’s better) and why they should buy yours over the next guy.

    Impact: Impact is the “A HA!” or “WOW” moment where all of the design pieces collate in the consumer’s mind, convincing them of your message/product. This is accomplished in many different ways for many different people. Using tools like market segmentation allow you to tailor your marketing approach for more A HA! moments as the casual consumer glides through an array of stimuli each and every day, forcing them to stop and pay attention to you.

  4. Message: a communication or piece of information. It is something that is often the last piece of communication, the words of most significance or ideas to be remembered. It is the summary of the whole. In marketing, your message is often the tagline. It should be clear and concise and concern only the most important ideas.

    Advocate: a supporter. And more specifically, a public supporter. An advocate is someone who will fight for the cause. Advocates are important in specified fields because they become the voice. They’re the army behind the organization,or the message, or the cause. The more advocates you have, the louder your voice becomes, which often strengthens your message.

    Differentiation: a distinguishable difference. Differentiation is selective, and discriminates or separates. It is used as a way to categorize or target items, objects or individuals.

    Impact: the resonance of initial contact. Impact is something that must linger. Whether it is the physical impact of contact with someone or something, or it is mental engagement that keeps your brain reeling, impact means having lasting effects. In marketing, impact is the effect a product had on an individual. It is important to gauge impact and capitalize on the elements that have the largest effect in order to keep people returning to events, or buying certain products.

  5. message
    Message is a method not only to communicate, but also to provide information. Creating appropriate messages in marketing is to produce information that you desire consumer to see and hide from the disadvantage of your products. To me, there is a boundary between deceiving and marketing. How to define the bound is to notice that the characteristic of the product has been fully discovered and mentioned in the advertisement’s message.
    The definition of advocate is one that argues for a cause, being a supporter or defender. There are both advantages and disadvantages of being a advocate. On one hand, an advocate is not only a creator, but also a pionner. He/she is the key role of the organization. His/Her opinions are continuously valued to the organization. On the other hand, he/she can generate issues and problems that the organization does not want to confront.
    Differentiation makes a product or company different from one another. A differentiation strategy of a product or service offers unique attributes valued by consumer and before conducting a differentiation strategy, an organization should have a careful study of audience needs.
    Impact is the main reason for consumption or participation. Also,it means the force is exerted by a new idea, concept, technology, or ideology. In my point of view, as arts administrators, we should keep seeking impact in someone’s mind and continuously creating opportunities to show the impact of art to public.

  6. A message is something that is received or given. It marks something that contains information, knowledge, or a narrative. A message can be transmitted electronically, physically, and sometimes mentally, it can be seen or interpreted. Messages are essential for any type or communication. The way Lincoln used telegrams to help win the Civil War; love letters used to convey feelings throughout the ages; CEOs communicating with employees. Messaging has grown with the growth of technology and with the growth of instant messaging. Without communication, nothing is known.

    Being an advocate for something means that you support that certain thing or idea. It looks like avocado. Makes me hungry. An advocate can be a noun in the sense of being an advocate for a cause, or a verb, when actually speaking or writing in the favor of that cause. This word is important through multiple disciplines as it can create groups of people who share in the same ideas. Advocacy can create rifts between groups too, based on differences of opinion or ideas.

    Differentiation means to distinguish or to separate into categories or to see differences between a set of things. It can mean to put a label on those things being differentiated. We talk about differentiation when talking about product and product markets, about making a particular product more attractive or appealing toward another group of people.

    Impact can be a term used to describe several different things, but they all carry this sense of change, a change of somewhat large proportions. A bully can have a huge impact on the way a youth grows up, fearing larger individuals, holding on to mistrust, not feeling secure in his/herself; same as the love of someone may impact the way you feel about others who show similar traits and it may instill a sense of belonging. Both of these instances create an impact in the person that causes him/her to have reactions that are impactful in the way he/she interacts with people in the future. Impact is used when something hits or encounters something else, for example, the impact of a meteor on the face of the Earth can be quite substantial. Even a design! Which is what we want when marketing towards a certain demographic. When I think of this word, it always has a pang to it; it is a moving word, and one that generates reactions.

  7. Message: The message is the idea we’re trying to portray and submerge the audience into. In order for this idea to be communicated thoroughly it is important that we use language that our audience will understand and that the message is concise and short so that the concept is communicated before the audience’s focus is gone.
    Advocate: This term refers to a person or entity that supports and fights for a cause or purpose. In our field, this is extremely relevant because we have to be sufficiently knowledgeable of subjects, events and programs to speak on their behalf. Just as important it’s to have the right people be the advocates for your cause, so attention should be given to that.
    Differentiation: This speaks to whatever makes us stand out from the crowd. Defining what makes you different really early in the formation of an organization is crucial in the long run, because it makes it easier to be remembered in the memories of the audience.
    Impact: Impact refers to the effect we have on our audience’s opinions after the message has been delivered. If we developed the the functions of the terms above properly, this will be no challenge. Hopefully, this impact will be sensed in our sales, attendance, etc.

  8. Message: I am going to utilize interesting print ads for this week’s lexicon responses. All good marketing professionals deliver a succinct, interesting, and, hopefully, innovative message. Most commercial marketing is contrived and clichéd. Here is an example of a clever, simple, humorous, and narrative rich print ad:


    Advocate: I think this print ad is great, at first, the audience is unsure what the ad is about, but upon close inspection, you can see that VW is advocating for safe driving: specifically, don’t text and drive.


    Differentiation: Differentiation in marketing is highlighting what is unique about the product you are offering, there is also a conceptual aspect of differentiation that takes a concept applicable to one specific group and makes it attractive to a larger group, the many. The following ad encapsulates this concept, many people do not do yoga (alas) but this image is intriguing enough that, I feel, it would make any observer pause. The narrative is distinct and humorous.


    Impact: This ad is aesthetically very interesting and has a very emotional impact. This is an anti-smoking ad and is very effective:


  9. Message

    While marketing, it’s important for an organization to get its message across for several reasons. First, it helps an organization reach its target audience. Second, it can help an organization find sponsors and partners within the community. If the message aligns another organizations, they may want to help out. Message also pertains to the central meaning of an advertisement. It’s important to consider what you want your ad to say in order to get the desired result.


    An advocate is generally a financial sponsor or partner to an organization. It may be a mutually beneficial alignment if the organizations can work together to create programming or advertising opportunities for each other.


    Differentiation is an opportunity for organizations to distinguish themselves against their competition through what makes them unique. Organizations must consider what impact their presence has in their community and decide why they are important. Differentiating themselves from other organizations not only increases awareness and grows the consumer base, but it also helps them find partners and advocates.


    Impact is a measure of how effective a marketing strategy was. Measuring impact can help organizations tailor future marketing campaigns in order to reach more consumers more effectively.

  10. message – I think about a “message” as a package of information that requires delivery. You succeed in delivering a message when someone decides to take off the wrapping and open the package. Messaging is different than communication. Messaging is a one way endeavor — it’s like the regular mail. Communication at least seeks confirmation of delivery – it’s more like UPS where the receiver has to sign for something. Of course this doesn’t mean that the person who receives the package actually opens it. This is a useful distinction for me.

    advocate – The root of this word is related to voice. It came out of the tradition of “pleading” cases in a court of law. This again valorizes messaging or the output of information. To what extent to advocates listen? Often listening time for advocates entails crafting a strategic response, preparation for the next round of effective pleading. In many case, pleading is called for. Public advocates try to give voice for those whose voices have been compromised. I would like to find a comfort zone for myself as an advocate but am not there yet.

    differentiation – Very similar to segmentation for me, a word from last week, also associate with analysis. With differentiation, however, the question becomes the criteria that one is using to differentiate. This goes back to the psychological tests for children of being given four flash cards and being asked to identify the thing that doesn’t fit in. It all depends on the criteria, the framing of the task. Differentiation is instrumental, it always implies a larger goal, a purpose for making distinctions between different entities.

    impact – I have a hard time getting the picture of a crash test for a car. Impact – there is a suggestion of penetration, almost as if the word was “in-pact.” This is perhaps what makes it such a dynamic word, exciting and potentially violent. There is a research institute at the University of Pennsylvania called Social Impact of the Arts, and I’m reviewing a lot of the material they’ve generated. One thing I like about the word is that it implies a real change. You can’t un-crash a car. If something has “impact,” you know it’s made a difference.

  11. Message is a form of communication – whether written, oral, or nonverbal – from one individual to another or group of individuals. It is also an underlying meaning behind the form of communication, which indicates the important “take-away.”

    Advocate is a person or entity that supports the values of another individual or organization by communicating for that person or entity. Typically, the advocate has a position higher authority compared to the supported person or organization.

    Differentiation is the distinction between two or more factors that are closely related, which includes specific terminology and characteristics that pertain to one factor but not the other.

    Impact is the influence of one or more factors on a specific variable or group of variables. Impact indicates the trajectory of the variable(s), which can highlight future outcomes and results. Also, the factors may indicate a positive, neutral (having no impact), or negative influence, which could also indicate length of impact – how long does a factor(s) influence an outcome of certain variables.

  12. message
    McLuhan states that electric light, “pure information,” is a medium without a message (p. 8). But in the case of media, the content of any medium is , arguably, just another medium. I THINK what McLuhan is getting at is that the form in which the information is delivered can completely overtake the message–can speak for the message itself. So, in the case of technology, the delivery method (say, social media) can completely change how the message is received by the audience. Thus, “the medium is the message.”

    An advocate is someone that speaks in defense, or on behalf, of a cause or entity. In Cultural Policy, we talk a lot about arts advocacy, and the fact that local and state arts agencies are not actually legally allowed to do advocacy on the political level; this is left to explicit advocacy groups, like the Cultural Advocacy Coalition of Oregon (oregonculture.org). In arts marketing, when identifying a prospective donor, it is helpful to have an internal advocate–someone in the organization who is connected to the targeted corporation –who can advocate on the organization’s behalf.

    Differentiation speaks to both how an organization differentiates themselves from similar organizations, and how an organization differentiates their different target markets. In the case of the former, and example would be Ballet Fantastique finding a way to play to the strengths of their differentiation from Eugene Ballet (more new works, more risk-taking in sets, costumes, and choreography). In the case of the latter, using this same example, this would be Ballet Fantastique developing different marketing materials for these segments such as: current season subscribers, single young adults, and families.

    Impact can be described in the arts administration sphere as the (positive) difference the arts make. This can be demonstrated in many different ways, depending on the audience. How can players in the cultural policy field define and defend the impact of the arts? These arguments can be instrumental, ie., the arts can lead directly to other measurable benefits. Impacts would be those such as economic (as in creative platemaking arguments), or increase in 21st-century skills (as in arguments for arts education). These impacts would be measured, accordingly, with economic analysis, or test scores within a school district that receives arts education.

  13. I agree with what Alex’s reference to McLuhan’s point of view that “the medium is the message.” As an arts organization we have may tools to deliver our ideas, intentions via a message. This piece of information or communication represents the organization and leaves an impression to our target audiences. A well delivered message would be packaged just like any other cultural product for maximum effect.

    When I see the word advocate I see a hot blooded group people fighting for some global human rights. In our art marketing world, I feel that an advocate is still someone that defends, supports of a belief or of a cause related to our field. I recently met some donors for the school of music and many of them are passionately supportive for the arts but somewhat fraustrated with why they should support the cause of the music school. These potential donors are advocates for our survival and the fact that they felt the communications between the organization and themselves have been weak was intriguing to me. I can see that both sides are advocating their ideals of what the school of music should be but not reaching a mutual middle ground.

    Differentiation is knowing what are the differences that marks us apart. How one distinguishes itself from similar products or other arts group can affect the way we target our audiences and how we approach them.

    Impact is the influence and the positive differences an arts organization can make. It can be described as a measurable outcome for the organization, the results can be economical, educational, spiritual and emotional and how the organization sees itself fits into their environment.

  14. Message: Communicated subject matter. Information may be transferred as a physical representation of data, such as a letter or a billboard, or information may take on an intangible form such as verbal conversation or expressive body language. Messages can be delivered in every size, from the quick wink of a stranger to the lengthy scroll of the United States Declaration of Independence. When someone sends a message, they use point of reference to convey meaning. Whether or not a message is understood in its entirety is up to both parties on either end of the information transfer.

    Advocate: The devoted protagonist. Someone who builds support in the public sphere. To dedicate oneself to the advancement of an idea or movement. An advocate may choose to write a letter of recommendation or testimonial, speak in favor of an individual at a rally, present a supportive argument at a debate, donate financially to a cause, or encourage people to sign a petition. Serving as an advocate, or proponent, calls for active participation in techniques of persuasion.

    Differentiation: Established deviation. The state of being different. A process of identification in variance. Differentiation may exist relative to a control factor and/or amongst a group of elements. With regards to advertising, differentiation is realized in market segmentation strategies as companies seek to understand the unique needs of various types of consumers.

    Impact: A degree of influence. The result of choice in action. The level of effect on outcome. In the visual sense, impact is achieved through great attention to elements of strong design. Marketing impacts the way we think by appealing to our emotions, needs, curiosities, weaknesses, and beliefs. We have been discussing in class the impact of branding on consumer behavior.

  15. The words this week imply what your mission for an organization is. For the purpose of the posters we made this week the group of words implies what the mission or intent of them visually is.

    message:The way images and text is organized in a visual to me is how the message begins to formulate in a piece of design work. Beyond that the words you choose to give information for the event or subject being advertised correlates

    advocate: I believe your collateral is things out in the world that advocates for your organization when you can not do so in person. That is why it is so important for the messages and put into your collateral to be clear and curated in order to best advocate for yourself.

    differentiation: Differentiation is how your collateral makes you unique from the other visual simulation and macerating put out their by your competition.

    impact: I feel like differentiation and impact go hand and hand together. And organization when your design and marketing and even mission are unique and differentiate you from the others in the cultural marketplace you have a stronger impact on your audience.

  16. Message—what you are attempting to convey to the consumer
    Advocate—someone in the community who is a ally and who will speak up for the importance of your organization. It’s a step more involved than simply attending events or donating. It is also attending public hearings and pushing for funding and the well being of your organization.
    Differentiation—a way of distinguishing things
    Impact—does it catch your eye, make you think or/and evoke an emotion? It has impact.

  17. MESSAGES are all about communication, and can be delivered through written, verbal, or visual means. It is quite possibly the most important aspect of marketing. What do you want to say to your audience? Without a message, advertising becomes ineffective. In many cases, the medium IS the message; the form of the message is almost always as important as the message itself. My interest in graphic design is centered on the delivery of valuable, meaningful content, through visual means. Effective design communicates the message quickly and beautifully, enabling the viewer to instantly understand important information without having to dissect the image to search for it. Cluttered, bad design, gives a cluttered, convoluted, and therefore ineffective, message.

    ADVOCATES are a nonprofit’s best friend. They support organizations through volunteered time, activism, donated services or funds, and more. Advocates are often (official or unofficial) spokespersons for a cause or organization, by spreading awareness through word of mouth and positive reinforcement. Advocates can be individuals, private or public institutions, corporations, or activists and special interest groups.

    DIFFERENTIATION is the determination of differences between entities. This an important process in determining market segments. By identifying variations among your market, you can start to group your market into sub categories in order to better understand how to reach that specific audience through appropriate marketing efforts. Variations in message and delivery method according to your differentiated market groups can increase the likeliness that your message will be received.

    IMPACT is the measure of effectiveness or change caused by an act or circumstance. Ideally, with appropriate differentiation and delivery of the message, a marketing campaign will have a great impact, which can be measured by subsequent sales, web traffic, social media interaction, attendance, participation, memberships, etc. More intangible indicators of impact might include changes in perceptions or actions by audience members in their daily lives.

  18. Message – a dialogue between two people or between one person and many people. A form of communication. Can be written or printed or verbally communicated.

    Advocate – someone who is supporting or promoting something. They are invested in that particular thing so they want to show their support.

    Differentiation – to be able to notice what is not the same in two or more objects. What sets things apart.

    Impact – to have an affect on. To make a difference.

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