Lexicon, week 4


Lexicon Devil
Lexicon Devil (Photo credit: Wikipedia)


Below are the four terms you should respond to for this week’s lexicon exercise. As always, draw on readings, discussion, experience, and/or other intriguing sources for grounding how you hear/use/understand these words.





NOTE: This assignment works best if everyone adds comments to this post; several of you have completed prior lexicon exercises by posting responses on your ePort and syndicating them into our course site’s stream. As such, it is hard for anyone person to read all students’ ideas in one place…not a big deal, but somewhat undercuts the efficacy of the effort.

Last, but not least, here are the rest of the terms from the in-class brainstorm:











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16 thoughts on “Lexicon, week 4”

  1. Lexicon III

    Persuasion: The word persuasion means to convince someone of something; the act of engaging compliance. As artists, we persuade the audience to feel a certain way, to gain insight into something, to expand your mind. Persuasion happens all the time, either subconsciously or intentionally; the media around us is constantly trying to persuade us into doing something or thinking in a certain way. Can persuasion be subliminal? Yes. Marketing has a lot of use for this word!

    Visibility: To see or been seen. Visibility is the nature of sight. Visibility can act as a transparent word, like when a company’s motives are visible to the public; or as a more literal term, like the company was visible from the street. Makes me think of fog, because the nature of fog does weird things to visibility. Makes me think of the lexicon we wrote about identity. They can share similar traits when used in the right context. The Invisible Man has no visibility, and that is seen as a power, albeit uncanny.

    Need: Need is the urge to have something in order to survive. It is pertinent that you must have this thing, this idea. The adverse of ‘to want’ or ‘not need’. Think of food, shelter, companionship; it is different for everyone, yet a lot are shared. “Depending on your needs,” is something heard quite frequently in the workplace or other areas. Needs are extreme desires, you could say. Needs vary depending on where you are or whom you are with. Work needs are different from relationship needs. Bread?

    Incentive: This word describes something that is given as an instigator toward something else; the promised idea of a reward. I think of companies that give incentives to its workers to do an exceptional job. Incentive can make things happen and can be constructive. Incentives can also be seen as an insult; the idea that it takes an offer to get potential results can be seen as degrading for those who have a strong sense of duty or morale. Being given an incentive reminds me to follow my own intuition, because one should rely on that rather than looking at the prize and doing what it takes to get it. It is important to understand when something is an incentive verses something that is freely given as goodwill, speaking interpersonally.

  2. Persuasion: Arts marketing is all about persuading people to participate in your show, exhibit, etc. Organizations do this through advertising, personal sales, public relations, and sales promotions. If an arts organization cannot persuade people to come through their doors they will go out of business.

    Visibility: Visibility is important for an arts organization because if people don’t know about an event it is impossible for them to participate or attend. Marketing is all about increasing visibility and making sure that people know about your product.

    Need: There is an ongoing debate in our society about whether participation in the arts is a need or a desire, a right or a privilege. Basic needs include food, shelter, employment, and education. As arts administrators it is important that we explore where arts participation fits into this spectrum of basic needs.

    Incentive: Incentives are values added on to make a product more appealing to potential consumers. Oftentimes organizations will incentivize membership by offering special events or discounts to their members.

  3. persuasion – I associate persuasion with the extremely difficult task of unpeeling someone from their point of view, enough so they actually change their behavior and make a different decision than they otherwise would have made. I think this rarely happens. I think the arts is one of the most effective persuasive strategies. Advertising has played on the power of art to persuade people around specific products. I don’t think advertising is effective at promoting consumption of a specific product, but I think it is devastating in selling the overall idea of consumption. The “overwhelming force” of advertising, collectively, has been to make consumption an unassailable imperative.

    visibility – To achieve visibility, things need to register and not just pass in front of the eyes. There is always a double take when something becomes “visible” to people. Visibility depends on contrast and so studying the context is an important part of making something visible. For many cultures, invisibility is a distinct value. In U.S. culture, there is money behind exposure. This suggests to me that we are addicted to visibility, to a certain narcissistic strain in our national character.

    need – This makes me think of “The Lorax” and “Thneeds” – the things you need. “Needs” is also becoming a bad word in the discourse about community development. The correct way to frame your project is as one focusing on “assets” rather than “deficits” or “needs.” My gut tells me that eliminating “need” from the community development vocabulary goes too far. I think “needs” provides a good jumping off point for dialogue within a community. Relative to marketing the idea of need also raises the potential for discussion about what is most important.

    incentive – For me, the word “incentive” is a particular way to break down human motivation and experience. It’s deterministic and reductive. If we do something for someone we love, was it because we an incentive to be kind to those we depend upon? Is there an expectation that we will get something in return? Or do we take action because it’s meaningful, because we feel “moved.” Are we moved by a deep personal incentive to not be left alone or bereft of meaning in our lives. I think this is semantics but indicative of an individualistic vision of the world. I think cultures that are more communal would struggle with the concept of “incentive.” Does this word exist in different, non-Western languages?

  4. Persuasion: influence. A method of convincing someone to change their beliefs, attitudes, intentions, motivations or behaviors. We are often persuaded unconsciously or consciously by factors around us, from other people to media and marketing ploys.

    visibility: I think of access when I hear visibility. If something is visible, it is therefore accessible. This can include the visibility of a logo on a piece of paper, or a company in the marketplace. How available is something to the public eye. Because the term is associated with access, you want most things you’re working with to be entirely visible so that someone can easily engage.

    Need: the requirement for something because it is essential. Need means that you cannot live without it. But when does want move into the realm of need? Is that based on and influenced by society? When it comes to activities, theories, and belief systems, do we need them or want them? Are the Arts needed, or just wanted? Unfortunately, that debate continues…

    Incentive: Positively, incentive can be seen as motivation, a stimulus, a reason, but negatively, it can be seen as a bribe in some cases. Anymore, I feel that most things must include incentives to get people to participate. They must be told what benefits they will receive before they engage in something in order to participate.

  5. All four of these words to me pertain to an audience and an interaction and exchange. They are setting the means for how you entice people to invest into something. This idea is the framework for how I defined these four words.

    persuasion: Persuasion is the strategies in which you are bringing audiences into your brand. I feel like persuasion is an enigma that doesn’t just call for certain qualities in order for it to persuade. I think persuasion requires a lot of factors like design, mission and even the personal selling in order for the act of persuasion to occur.

    visibility: Visibility is simple for me, it is the amount your message or product is seen. Organizations strive for visibility because inherently more visibility brings access to funding, business and audience. I think more visibility also means more responsibility because you become the most well known representation of what you are doing and that can make growth and new ventures difficult because of added expectation.

    need: Need revolves around purpose. What is the need for your organization, what audience does it have? When you figure out the need the other parts of branding your business fall into place. In terms of design need is as simplistic as does a choice you curate meet the need of the logo and its intent.

    incentive: Incentive as an idea is why people are motivated to participate in your organization or business. Incentive in a physical form can mean the “swag” you develop that gives people a reason to want more of what you are producing. In terms of funding incentive is the things you give back to donors and a community when different levels are met.

  6. Persuasion goes hand in hand with manipulation. To successfully persuade people, you must coax them into believing whatever it is you are trying to sell, defend or make them understand. Politicians are familiar with the art of persuasion in that they are constantly trying to influence thoughts, beliefs, and attitudes of the public in their efforts of campaigning. This term maintains a neutral ground, the connotation depending entirely on its usage. Positive persuasion manifests when the word is used in a an act of good – changing perceptions with optimistic leadership and fair play. Negative persuasion finds its home on the dark side as it aligns with trickery, deceit, misrepresentation, lies, and other acts of foul play.

    Visibility refers to a measure of exposure. When referring to weather or scuba diving, visibility describes the farthest distance to which a person can see clearly under existing atmospheric conditions. When used in a marketing context, visibility describes the extent to which a company, product or service is perceived by its audience or consumers. The success of an organization is highly dependent on its level of visibility; if no one is aware of what they are doing or offering, then it’s highly likely that they won’t support or contribute to agenda.

    Need is recognized as the opposite of want. It defines necessity rather than amenity. This word can be self-recognized, for example in terms of personal survival, or it can be acknowledged from an outsider’s perspective. We often perceive the need of others in our attempts to determine and produce products or services. According to Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, need is dealt on an individual level – from the basic needs of human safety and psychological health to needs of self-actualization such as talent, potential and personal fulfillment.

    Incentive goes back to the ideas revolving around persuasion. It is used only as a noun meaning something that motivates a person to change their mind or they way in which they operate. If used correctly like a reward, an incentive will stimulate positive behavior. If used incorrectly like a bribery, an incentive may backfire and cause an individual to repel or question motives. Either way, people use incentives to try and get what they want.

  7. Persuasion: This term always makes me think of power-over dynamics, whether obtuse or subtle, “persuasion” is often affiliated with manipulating individuals to act in ways that may not necessarily be in their best interest; however, there is any healthy and non-malicious persuasion, but in the context of politics and power, I cannot help but read “manipulation.” This term also generates concepts of propaganda, lobbyists, political advertising campaigns, slander, and legal persuasion by politicians and police officers on common citizens.

    Visibility: This term is similarly weighted as “persuasion;” however, “visibility” reminds me of those who are invisible, or in a position of having power held over them. Individuals who are visible are often, in the political arena, ones with power, money, and influence; those who are invisible are, often, the constituents who are, sometimes, lead coerced blindly.

    Need: This term also holds a political agenda, predominantly as a signifier of “those in need,” it has a connotation of power-over: those that have too much do not help those that need. It is interesting to see how these four words play off each other since they are presented in a group. As an audience member (of these four words), I cannot help but see them as a grouped whole, and not as individual terms. The need for non-profit and unincorporated arts organizations to gain national visibility will help persuade funders and politicians to incentivize supporting such organizations: this is a fundamental issue we address in Art in Society and Cultural Administration, and in a more museum specific context, in Collections Care. While true, the preceding sentence demonstrates the semantic need to keep these four terms grouped, they all speak to the same cultural phenomenon: art and politics are unfortunate bedmates.

    Incentive: Again, to reiterate, this term is weighted particularly when group with the three preceding terms. I am also temped to consider the non-profit vs. unincorporated arts organization binary in terms of incentives allowed official 501c(3) organizations, with regards to funding, grants, and government support, generally. 501c(3)’s offer clean and, socially, easily digestible packages: the Graffiti Research Lab and the Anarchist Cheerleaders would never apply for 501c(3) status because of their assertion that they are arts organizations outside the system. There is an aspect of top-down control that 501c(3) organizations submit themselves to, they are limited in their scope of activities, while being granted certain financial incentives to maintain their status: interesting carrot-on-the-stick power dynamics.

  8. Persuasion: When marketing anything, you’re trying to persuade someone to buy into your product or idea. I think the word has a somewhat negative connotation, because if you have to persuade someone to buy something, is it really that good in the first place? Obviously some products are great, but people don’t want them. One use of persuasion might come when you’re trying to expand your audience and you have to convince people to give your product a chance when they might not originally be inclined to do so.

    Visibility: Visibility is one of the more important considerations for an arts organization. How can you sell your product if people don’t know who you are/have never heard of what you’re selling? One of the problems with promoting visibility is that it can get expensive. Yes, there’s social media and having a presence online is helpful, but if nobody knows to look you up, then you’ve gotten nowhere.

    Need: This word can mean a few different things in the context of this course. First, it can refer to what an organization actually needs to do to be successful. It might need to promote itself more, find new audiences, select a more diverse thing to sell. But “need” could also refer to a marketing strategy that suggests consumers need to experience what the organization is selling. It goes hand-in-hand with the idea of persuasion to tell, or even better, show, people that they need to be a part of an event.

    Incentive: Again, incentive is a marketing tool that is part of persuasion and need. In order to help turn out a crowd, organizations can offer “extra” incentives in packages to convince people to purchase a ticket. That way, people feel like they’re getting a great deal.

  9. PERSUASION is a means of convincing someone to act or think in a particular way, usually in alignment to your own agenda. Persuasion can happen through debate, manipulation, begging, bribing, education, appealing to emotions, or any number of ways. In arts marketing, the goal is to persuade a potential audience to participate in your institution by way of visitation, ticket sales, memberships, donations, and interaction. I think it is important to understand the target you are trying to persuade, in order to appeal to them in an effective manner.

    VISIBILITY is about the scope, frequency, and strength of presence. Effective marketing can help achieve higher levels of visibility for arts organizations and programs. Through advertisements, social media, posters, newsletters, affiliations, websites, apps, and other avenues of transmedia, arts organizations can increase visibility to their audience, and therefore gain greater attention, maintain a hold in the minds of the audience, and ultimately grow their constituency.

    NEED is determined by a lack or requirement of something vital. Needs vary, depending on the person or institution. It is important for arts organizations to recognize the needs of their visitors/participants, such as accommodations for parking, kid-friendly and ADA-compliant facilities, communication platforms, educational opportunities, social connections, and more. Addressing these needs is important, however institutions must be sure to stay true to their own needs as an institution, particularly in alignment with their mission.

    INCENTIVE is a return for participation or involvement. It is wise for arts organizations to offer incentives to visitors. Marketing can be effective in communicating incentives to a potential audience, in order to persuade them in their decision of whether or not to participate.

  10. Persuasion: convincing someone to act in a certain way. In arts marketing, this is the goal- to persuade a potential audience to participate in an activity through bribing, emotional manipulation, personal interaction, repetition of imagery, education, etc.

    Visibility: the greater the visibility, the greater the chance of participation. In the 4 Ps, Place is dependent on convenience and visibility. This could be about location, but also about accessibility, strength of presence, online or in person.

    Need: these vary and change regularly. They are real and imagined. Arts organizations must attempt to recognize what needs their consumers have, and try to accommodate them, although it won’t always be possible. Arts marketers must also create needs, sometimes, to persuade their consumers to attend events.

    Incentive: The kick in the rear for fence-sitters. It may be in the form of discounts, free swag, upgrades, free parking, child care, free snacks and drinks, a big name performer, or even just the feeling that the environment will be comfortable and accessible to the entire family.

  11. Persuasion—to convince a person that your product or service is worth taking a risk on. Persuasion is accomplished through convey facts, making positive comparisons to other more well know brands, word of mouth “testimonials” either from friends or authorities, and through emotional connection with the product.
    Visibility—how often is your brand put in front of its target audience? How prevalent is it in the environment and how often will a person just randomly run across it. How well known is it. This is all related to visibility.

    Need—what is the hole your product can fill in the consumer’s life, or what can your product do to improve their life. That is a need. Also, what are potential needs that can act as a barrier to the consumer accessing your product and how can you address that need so the person is more likely to attend and event.

    Incentive—a bonus feature or treat that is offered like a carrot to get the consumer to commit to purchasing your product or attend your event. This is used for persuasion.

  12. Persuasion – To convince. I think of times where people have used their charm or good looks to persuade me to do things. Convincing someone to believe in something. If someone takes persuasion it is implied that the person does not really want to do whatever is trying to be persuaded in the first place. Persuasion starts when you want someone to do something against their intuition or against their will. I can be easily persuaded.

    Visibility – in clear sight. I guess visibility can be good or bad. If you have bad visibility there is usually something in the way. I think of scuba diving and visibility. Conditions are best when the visibility is a greater number in feet. If the visibility is poor and you can’t even see your own hand, you might as well not even get in the water.

    Need – something that is essential. We often confuse wants and needs. A need can also be a must. You must do this to survive! You “need” to do this to survive. A necessity. A requirement to do something.

    Incentive – Give a dog a bone. Giving a prize as motivation to get something done. Sometimes we need a little incentive. For example: come to the boring meeting where we will overload you with information and we will feed you lunch! OR take this survey, and I will give you some candy! Both of these examples would work on me!

  13. persuasion

    To make someone to agree with you is in a kind influencing someone to change his beliefs, attitudes, intention, motivation etc.
    so persuasion plays a significant role in marketing and especially in selling. There are many different theories in the context of
    persuasion and marketing for example non-conscious processing (which one of customer’s decisions are made consciously
    and which one is not) (http://faculty.business.utsa.edu/ljshrum/Dillard%20Ch19_FN%20to%20Publisher.pdf)


    Visibility refers to companies presence in the marketplace. It is in direct relation with publicity and advertisement. How you
    are seen in the market impacts the rate of your sale by convincing customer, thus visibility is one of the main factors that you
    can use for persuading customers to prefer your product over your competent. There are some ways to boost your visibility
    in market and therefore marketeers put a lot of effort in finding new ways as well but for example customer rewards, Opt-in
    emails,… are in this category (http://www.entrepreneur.com/article/160262)


    The driver of human action to try to provide something which is essential to satisfy a demand. This is the exact reason for
    marketeers to try to find the essential demands and supply them with their goods. Need is the reason of creation of market.


    In addition to need there must be an extension which persuades you prefer a good over other similar ones. Incentive satisfies
    the “motivation” part of the customer’s attitude. It mostly (economic wise) concerns the remunerative means unlike moral
    incentives. Incentives sometimes influence the trend as well because they are build to be able to change the attitude of

  14. persuasion
    persuasion is a key point to convince consumers to buy a company’s products. The most often using persuasion method is repetition, which means to created an strong imagine in consumers mind.

    Visibility for me is the key is to determine the sales numbers, the more products can be seen, the more the chance of being purchased. Used in arts scope as well, as Darrel said in the class, One of place strategy is visibility. the more exposure opportunities, the more they can attract audience to be participate. In my opinion, To increase visibility include knowing the ability to integrate knowledge, risk management, and links to the external environment and interaction, coupled with the accumulation of past experiences of training, then grasp the trend of an environment dynamics.

    Needs can be divided into two type, physical and emotional. When we discuss arts consumption, we also trying to meet the consumer’s emotional needs, providing experience, feelings and memories. This is different from meet the physical needs, because the emotional satisfaction is more subjective and personal, it is relatively easy to meet the physical need, such as drink water when you thirsty. So when we try to meet the emotional needs, you should focus more on creating unique and irreplaceable nature, so as to meet the emotional needs.

    When think of incentive, it always make me think of motivation and desire. How to encourage consumers to buy? How to create demand? let the consumer thinks they needs the goods, it stimulate consumer spending. So how to stimulate consumption is the question we need to think about. As in the reading material of culture and administration class mentioned, artistic participation need education, through education, people learn how to appreciate art, then into artistic creation and participation.

  15. Persuasion is the ability to convince another person or group of people to believe or take part of an idea or action. It involves language that highlights the benefits of the idea or action in order to entice other people, who would usually not take part.

    Visibility is level of being seen. This can be related to an organization, in which marketing strategies can enhance the viability of an organization among other similar organizations.

    Need is an essential. Typically this refers to provisions, such as food, water, shelter, and clothing, that provides basic supplies for a human being to sustain him/herself.

    Incentive is an extra component, typically a reward or a prize, that motivates and encourages a person to do something.

  16. Persuasion- is being convincing, backed up with facts and some kind of emotional connection with the product your are presenting. Persuasion is when you have made belief in someone to take a risk believing the outcome will be positive.

    Visibility is not just the physical aspect of logos and signs, but how often people tall about your product and brand through your various marketing campaigns. It is how much effort you put in for your audience to be reminded of your existence.

    Need is when there is demand in certain products or services in our consumer’s everyday life. We can help them by persuading (create) their needs and desire even if it is not there yet. Need can also be interpreted as an organizations process to improve on inviting in more audience and selling their product.

    Incentive- The extra, the bonus, the other beneficiary factor that will lure me into purchasing the product. It can be from meeting young singles like myself down to gaining a good extra pound all in good measure.

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